Starting from our knowledge of the matter observed daily and the more exotic matter present in the universe, we will see how physicists have managed to describe the particles of light and matter that populate the universe. Many questions remain unanswered, such as: do we really know all the particles in the universe? What is this mysterious dark matter? Does Einstein’s relativity apply to these particles? In particular, in addition to matter, another form of “anti-matter” exists and is observed in cosmic rays, in radioactivity and also in particle gas pedals like at CERN.
The fact that antimatter, created at the time of the Big Bang, has disappeared is another of the great mysteries of modern physics. We will explain the experiments that have shown that sometimes the laws of nature do not apply exactly the same way to matter and antimatter. In particular we will decipher recent experiments using hydrogen antiatoms in order to compare their properties to those of hydrogen atoms. In the description of these experiments we will try to clarify the notions of temperature, gravity, time, energy or “strange” quantum measurements.
We will present our current knowledge so that everyone can understand antimatter, its applications or the science fiction dreams that could result from it.